Crop of seed potatoes
Potato seed material is an important factor in production. Only through it is the selection process realized, embodied in new varieties. Healthy planting material and high-yielding varieties suitable for the given place of cultivation and direction of use are the basis of effective potato growing. Therefore, the regular purchase of certified seed material and the selection of the right variety are of paramount importance for the agricultural enterprise. The main thing is to collect 10-12 times the yield from each tuber. This can only be achieved by using healthy, high-quality material. Economic losses when planting low-quality seed tubers are particularly high, since no agrotechnical measures can eliminate their negative impact on productivity, and the costs remain at the same level as when planting high-quality seed material. The quality yield of seed potatoes is determined not by the number of tons per hectare, but by the number of tons per hectare of the seed fraction of tubers, with the corresponding quality characteristics. Under market conditions, due to poor planting material, it is often necessary to change the chosen direction of potato use, which leads to additional losses.
High reproduction rates have always been the goal of potato seed production for economic and biological reasons. Due to the relatively high cost of potato planting material, compared to other crops, producers strive for the lowest possible costs in its production. On the other hand, optimal standing density is a prerequisite for achieving high yields and good quality. The rate of reproduction of potatoes is expressed by the coefficient of reproduction. It can be expressed in:
- number of tubers (how many tubers develop from one tuber);
- weight (how many kg, c, t tubers are obtained from kg, c, t seed tubers);
- areas (how many m2 / ha can be occupied by tubers removed from 1 m2 or 1 ha);
A high yield of seed potatoes can be considered a crop that consists of the optimal number of tubers of the seed fraction (when the genetic potential of the variety is realized – the optimal number of tubers of the seed fraction per plant is formed), collected from a unit area. Of course, the average size (fraction) of seed potatoes, while affecting the weight amount of the crop of seed potatoes. At the same time, the closer to the upper limit of the tolerance for the fraction we approach, with a constant (optimal for the variety) planting density and the number of tubers per plant, the higher the yield of seed potatoes. Here, an important role is played by such a characteristic of the variety as the equalization of the fractional composition of seed potatoes.
If this indicator is high (for example, we have 10 tubers per plant of approximately the same size, 45-55 mm), we can talk about a high yield of seed potatoes. Here it should be noted that in addition to the weight characteristics for the crop of seed potatoes, the quality of seed potatoes is extremely important. It is caused not only by visual and optical indicators of the absence of pathogens, but also by the absence (limited by the presence of tolerances) of a viral infection in the tubers of seed potatoes. In this regard, when producing seed potatoes, it is very important to keep in mind the quantitative and qualitative components. So, when deciding on the timing of removal of the tops, it is necessary to measure both the quantity of the seed potato crop and the quality – in the last periods of potato growth, the vector of viral infection is most active, fungal and bacterial pathogens behave more aggressively.
The right choice of varieties for certain soil and climatic conditions and areas of use is the main prerequisite for obtaining high yields of good quality, and therefore income. Different varieties differ in many characteristics and properties. Currently, we offer more than 70 varieties of our own selection on the national and international markets.
To obtain high yields of high-quality seed potatoes, a special, seed-growing approach in production is necessary. In addition to the use of special agrotechnical measures, including the selection of fields with good spatial isolation, crop rotation, planting density, chemical treatments, phyto-cleaning, vector control, proper care, harvesting and storage of seed potatoes, it is necessary to clearly separate the production of seed and commercial potatoes. Here, the scale, the health of the planting material used, and the health of the growing plants are of great importance. The spread of linoleum from infected areas to healthy areas can occur, including with vectors of infections, which are various types of aphids, cicadas, machinery, people, water and wind.